International Journal of Scientific Research and Technology aims at publishing the finest peer-reviewed reserch in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality,importance,interdisciplinary interest,timelines, accessability and elegance. The Journal intends to serve for the advancement and dissemination of knowledge in all fields of Science & Technology.

International Journal

  1. Diagnosis of Mental Stress using Statistical Analysis and Wavelet Transformation of Electrocardiogram (ECG) Signal
  2. The present work deals with the method to distinguish ECG signal of a normal person and mentally stressed person. Time series analysis and unit root test has been applied to established that they are auto regressive (AR) and non stationary process. A generalized deterministic mathematical model of the normal and mentally stressed patient has also been suggested by applying the Yule Walker method. Hence the wavelet transform based Semblance analysis has been applied to extract features from the ECG signals.
  3. Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Using Honeypots
  4. Honeypots is a resource which pretends to be a real target, so that we can protect the real resource or service from the malicious users/hackers and know their intentions and attack patterns. In this paper, we present a security solution whereby we deploy three fake services on three ports on the server. These act as bait to the hacker and whenever one tries to access, we close the connection and know the IP address and the ports from which it is establishing the connection, and store it in a database. On a large number of connection attempts on these fake services, the IP addresses are deemed as malicious users and they are denied connection on the main service and their report is given to the admin, so that we can manually block or unblock the IP addresses and can identify the location and take requisite action.
  5. A Review on Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Micro and Nano Composites Produced by Stir Casting
  6. The concept of composite A composite material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) have the potential to offer desirable properties, including low density, high speciûc strength, high speciûc stiffness, excellent wear resistance and controllable expansion coefficient, which make them attractive for numerous applications in aerospace, automobile, and military industries. Normally micron-sized particles are used to improve the ultimate tensile and yield strengths of the matrix, but the ductility of the AMCs deteriorates signiûcantly with high particle concentration. It is of interest to use nano-sized particles to strengthen the matrix, while maintaining good ductility, high temperature creep resistance and better fatigue resistance. Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with micro and nano-sized Al2O3 particles are an interested group of advanced materials, which are widely used for high performance applications such as automotive, military, aerospace and electricity industries.The composites possess improved physical and mechanical properties such as superior strength to weight ratio, good ductility, high strength and high modulus ,low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent wear resistance, excellent corrosion resistance, high temperature creep resistance and better fatigue strength.
  7. Implementation of Fast Fourier Transform Using Verilog with Improved Technique
  8. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) can be implemented very fast using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). It is one of the finest operations in the area of digital signal and image processing. FFT is a luxurious operation in terms of MAC. To achieve FFT calculation with a many points and with maximum number of samples the MACs requirement could not be matched by efficient hardware’s like DSP. So a fine solution is to use dedicated hardware processor to perform efficient FFT working out at high sample rate, while the DSP could perform the less concentrated parts of the processing. Verilog implementation of floating point FFT with reduced generation logic is the proposed architecture, where the two inputs and two outputs of any butterfly can be exchanged hence all data and addresses in FFT dispensation can be reordered
  9. Employing Capillarity in Pore Radius Estimation in Hardened Cement Paste
  10. Concrete is an inherently porous material. Pores have been classified in terms of pore size distribution parameters. Mean radius or equivalent radius has also been used in the assessment of porous material like concrete and it has been related to other parameters like water-cement ratio, degree of hydration, age etc. Different methods are used to estimate such a radius and overall radii distribution, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry being the most common. The method has yielded appreciable results within its limitations and they have been extensively studied. But it is quite cumbersome to carry out and becomes increasingly costly for higher pressure applications. Other methods like water retention curves and imaging of individual pores require a lot of effort to generate statistically significant results. This paper presents the result of an effort to carry out pore radius estimation in essentially cement paste samples using the phenomenon of capillary absorption of water. Capillarity in porous materials is governed by the Lucas-Washburn equation to an appreciable extent. Five water-cement ratios(0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6) and five curing ages(1,3,7,28,90 days) have been used to widen the scope and observe the trends. Results have been compared with the MIP results from an earlier study in the same laboratory. The magnitude found for the effective pore sizes through Lucas Washburn Equation are two to three orders smaller than the corresponding mean pore radius as obtained in MIP studies. But the comparison trends between w/c ratios and curing ages are seen to be largely similar. It is believed that this parameter might be used for the purpose of comparative evaluation of materials based on actual rates of absorption.
  11. Modeling Simulation and Harmonic Analysis of a Series Resonant Inverter Feeding RL Load: Considering Transformer Parameters
  12. Series Resonant Inverter (SRI) is a source of very high frequency energy and is used for high frequency applications, such as Induction heating, Metal and thin film plastic surface treatment, communication and AC power flow areas (HVDC and HVAC) etc. SRIs are linked with the load through high frequency transformers to improve the current gain. Inclusion of transformers and RL load leads to higher frequency harmonic components in the load voltage. The present papers includes the harmonic analysis of a basic SRIs (Class – A), feeding RL load with the consideration of transformer parameters. System is modeled first in continuous time domain and then harmonic analysis is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK which is extended to the filtering out the higher frequency harmonic components using Butterworth IIR filter.
  13. On the Rainfall in Marathawada and the Need for Farmers to have an Alternative Source of Income
  14. : In this work the rainfall in Marathawada is studied, and possible source of rainfall erraticism is analyzed. Based on the historical data, prediction of rain in the year 2015 is made. Since the rain amount varies widely from year to year, it would be advisable for the farmers to have an alternative for irrigation or have alternate sources of income. Since the prediction is being made well in advance on December 2, 2014 i.e. the date of completion of the manuscript, , it gives sufficient time to farmers to select future course of action if the technique demonstrated here is followed subsequently.
  15. E-epidemic Model of Computer Worms with Random Coefficients in the Network
  16. In epidemiology, lots of mathematical models are developed by using the system of differential equations and many of the systems have used the parameters as deterministic variables. In this paper, the variables, which are used in the system, are considered as random variables with specified distributions because the equations with random coefficients are better in describing the real behavior of the parameters as compared to deterministic coefficients. A stochastic spectral representation of the parameters is used. Numerical methods and polynomial chaos method are used to simulate and obtain the evolution of the mean and higher – order moments with respect to time.
  17. Present Status and Future Possibilities of Growth of Solar Energy in India
  18. The sun can be one of the most possible powerful renewable energy sources. Solar energy is finite energy resources to meet up long term global energy crisis. The recent energy crisis and environmental burden are becoming increasingly urgent and drawing enormous attention to solarenergy utilization. The present study is intended to review on recent advances in developing the STE and SPV technologies for solar power generation. Capturing and using just the sunlight which hits the earth in one day could provide enough energy for the entire world all year. Solar power has the immense capacity to bring in stability to the fluctuating electricity tariffs in India as it is cheaper than thermal and domestic coal. We have realized that solar radiation in the worst part of India is better than the best part of Europe. In India, the electricity demand is drastically increasing. Solar Thermal (STE) and Photovoltaic Electricity (SPV) technology can be implemented in India as solar resources and large wasteland areas are widely available in the country. Solar thermal energy is finite energy resources to meet up long term global energy crisis. The recent energy crisis and environmental hazards are drawing enormous attention to solar-energy utilization. The utilization of solar energy in India has got prime importance in the present scenario of energy crisis in the country
  19. Intrinsic Shapes of Elliptical Galaxies: ngc 5638 and ngc 5813 Using Modified Prior
  20. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the light distribution of elliptical galaxies NGC 5638 and NGC 5813 by combining the profiles of photometric data from the literature with triaxial models. We use ensembles of models so that the shape estimates are largely model independent. We follow the methodology as described in Statler (1994) which is modified to suit our requirements. We find that short to long axial ratios at very small radii and at very large radii, and the absolute value of the triaxiality difference are the best constrained shape parameters. We use a modified prior as obtained from the shape estimates of a large sample of elliptical galaxies to determine the intrinsic shapes of the elliptical galaxies NGC 5638 and NGC 5813. Shape estimates using modified prior should be more reliable. These results are compared with the previous estimates which are determined by using flat prior reported by Chakraborty et al (2008) and Singh and Chakraborty (2009). The plot shows the intrinsic shapes of the NGC 5638 and NGC 5813 as a function of (q0,q∞) for two dimensional shapes and (q0,q∞,|Td|) for three dimensional shapes, where q0 and q∞(=q) are the short to long axial ratios at small and at large radii and |Td| is the absolute values of the triaxiality difference, defined as |Td|= |T∞ - T0|. The probability is shown in the dark grey region: darker is the region higher is the probability. We find that both the galaxies NGC 5638 and NGC 5813 are rounder inside and flatter outside.
  21. Boron manganese steel in hot stamping application-A Review
  22. Within the innovative hot forming process for sheet metals,it is possible to combine forming and quenching in one process step. This affords the opportunity to manufacture components with complex geometric shapes, high strength and a minimum of springback which currently find applications as crash relevant components in the automotive industry. 22MnB5 boron alloyed steel is the common steel which is used for such advanced hot forming process. The mentioned steel has acceptable hardenability and produces fully lath martensitic microstructure after hot stamping. The yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength after hot stamping are increased to approximately1000 MPa and 1500 MPa, respectively. But the steel industry in keen on developing the steels with better quenchability even in the lower cooling rate to ensure the good and stable product properties of hot-stamped sheet. This paper reviews the factors which influence boron manganese steel used in hot stamping technology for automotive industry.
  23. Estimation of Ground Water Reserves without Drilling Operations in Water Prospecting
  24. In this work, estimate of water reserves without drilling operations are carried out. The method used is using field voltage measurements and three dimensional finite element analysis and optimization calculations. . The method is explained by considering three cases where unknowns solved are ( a) voltage distribution due to applied voltage in the current carrying poles , (b ) conductivities of various layers , and ( c ) conductivities and depth of layers given the voltages measured at different points on the ground.
  25. A Wireless Speed Control of Induction Motor
  26. The goal of this paper is to wireless control of induction motor using PLC .The PLC is the emerging technology in the electrical and electronics world because it have the various component such as memory input and output system, this function allows a PLC to read the status of its input terminals and energize or de-energize its output terminals. This paper investigates the communication between PLC and PC through wireless connection for controlling the speed of induction motor. In wired network system the communication between PLC and motor, I get the RPM of induction motor through manually using tachometer and manually change the speed reference through VFD. So I get the approx straight line output between speed reference and manually RPM. But in case of wireless system the connection between PLC and PC is very interesting and useful for future work. In this method the speed reference input is given in PC through RS logix 5000 software and is running in both mode forward and reverse direction manually. The VFD is much important role play for record the data of voltages, currents, RPM, (in forward or reverse mode) also DC bus voltage etc, in loading or without loading in motor respectively. So the output waveform between speed reference and RPM in wireless system is also a straight line when we record the RPM using tachometer but in PLC the indicated reading is recorded with slip. So in this paper I got a conclusion between speed reference and RPM with both connections wired or wireless the changing of output waveform is not vary. So wireless system is very useful for large and future scope.
  27. Design and Analysis of Minkowski Square Loop Fractal Antenna
  28. With the rapid evolution in wireless communication systems and increasing importance next generation wireless applications, wideband and low profile antennas are in great demand for both commercial and military applications. Applying fractals to antenna elements allows for smaller, resonant antennas that are multiband/broadband and may be optimized for gain. In this paper, Minkowski fractal antenna for Bluetooth application has been designed. Apart from this, it can be used for various other applications as well because of its multiband feature. The antenna is fed by Microstrip feeding technique. The proposed patch antenna is designed and simulated on IE3D simulation software and it is designed to operate in 2.45GHz band. In this analysis, we have compared the antenna parameters such as gain, impedance, antenna efficiency, radiation efficiency, radiation pattern, polar plots, VSWR and Q-factor. Reduction in patch antenna size is achieved when performing fractalization of the main patch.
  29. Quality of Service (QoS) for improvement of Channel Assignment Scheme in Wireless Mesh Network
  30. The wireless mesh network is an emerging technology for the next generation wireless Internet. It works as a backhaul for other wireless network. There are number of issues which need to be considering in wireless mesh network. As in other networks like MANET, ADHOC, SENSOR power is the major constrained. But it is not so in WMN. So, Power can be optimally utilised. It can be used to increase throughput and channel utilization of the network so that to improve QoS. Here we will discuss some major issues which need to be considered in WMN. Wireless mesh network operates similar as the network of fixed routers only difference is that they are connected with the wireless links. This paper gives the brief overview of the issues exist in WMN and the existing channel assignment schemes in multicast WMN.
  31. Automated Manufacturing with Low Cost Machines using Solar Energy in Remote and Rural Areas
  32. In this paper, automated method of manufacturing in remote and rural areas are discussed. These areas many times lack supply of electrical energy. This is overcome by introducing efficient method of solar energy conversion into electricity using photo- voltaic solar panels. Next, to introduce better productivity and quality control, x-y robots are used which use micro-processor control. The end-effector of this robot carries an embroidery frame which is given motion in two dimensions. The two-dimensional motion is co-ordinated with sewing machine needle’s motion.
  33. GSA: Gravitational Search Algorithm
  34. Natural phenomenon are a warm area of research among the researchers. A large number of algorithms have been developed on the account of natural phenomenon‘s and swarm behavior. These algorithms have been implemented on the various computational problems for the sake of solutions and provided significant results than conventional methods but there is no such algorithm which can be applied for all of the computational problems. In 2009, a new algorithm was developed on the behalf of theory of gravity and was named gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for continuous optimization problems. In short span of time, GSA algorithm gain popularity among researchers and has been applied to large number of problems such as clustering, classification, parameter identification etc. This paper presents the compendious survey on the GSA algorithm and its implementation and also some modification in existing algorithm, applications as well as enlightens the applicability of GSA.
  35. Micrography of Different Compositions of Brass Developed at 980oC and 1100oC
  36. Brass is one of the most important domestic, industrial and ornamental alloy of Cu and Zn. Different compositions of brass ranging from Cu wt% 60 to 80 are used wide over. In present study, brass in four compositions has been prepared by sand casting and optical micrography has been done to compare the effect of composition on microstructure. The superheat temperature has also been varied in two steps viz. 980 oC and 1100oC and the effect on microstructure has been reported.
  37. Short Time Fourier Transform based Dominant Frequency Extraction Algorithm for Brain Computer Interface Systems
  38. In this paper authors propose a novel method of dominant frequency detection, based on the short time Fourier transforms (STFT), to quantify and visualize the information as feature contains in the specific frequency bands defined in the analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal for brain computer interface (BCI). The raw EEG subjected to band pass filter. The filtered signal subjected to the proposed algorithm for calculating the variance of relative power spectral intensity. The dominant frequency components are easily identified by analyzing the variance of relative power spectral intensity using proposed method. The effectiveness of proposed method of EEG signal processing is validated by self-generated artificial sine wave signal, Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) data set and single subject Movement Imagery (MI) BCI competition data set.
  39. Cfd Analysis of Aerodynamic Design of Vehicle
  40. The choice of car is often made on the basis of fuel efficiency cost and comfort. However for general purpose fuel efficiency is the most important factor that is responsible for the overall popularity of a car of any make fuel efficiency is depend upon the performance of internal combustion engine and also on the aerodynamic design body of the car. Aerodynamic styling of car is one of the most crucial aspects of car design. In compassing task on artful integration of CAD modelling, The objective of the present study is computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 3-D car model to find the aerodynamic design parameters.Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the numerical techniques to solve the equations of fluid flow. CFD tool is found very useful in automobile industry 3-D solid model of the car of different make will be constructed by using pro-engineering software and the analysis was done on ansys software. The aerodynamic analysis of the design parameter of car will be performed by using a suitable turbulence model and to compare the drag coefficient and drag force of different model car (Maruti Alto, Maruti Omni Omni and Tata Indica). The result obtained from CFD analysis will be validated by field/experimental studies. The result of software analysis has agreed excellently with field experimentally results.
  41. Real Time Movement Imagery Classification based on Reverse filtration process
  42. Recent advancement in biomedical research work, increases the demand of real time algorithm for Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing. In this paper the authors highlighted Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) based reveres filtration algorithm for online (i.e. real time) as well as offline motor imagery classification for Brain Computer Interface (BCI). The proposed MFCC based algorithm is very first and robust unsupervised algorithm for offline and online movement imagery classification. The difference of the different Hjorth parameters is taken from the cepstral coefficients has been taken as feature for movement imagery classification. The classification accuracy and mutual information has been taken as BCI evolution parameters. The extracted features has been classified using linear classifiers for offline comparison. The offline processing algorithm has been applied in nine subject data of BCI competition IV dataset 2b. The online processing algorithm has been applied in the self recorded single subject data set. The real time processing algorithm has been compared through the performance in training and testing dataset.